The fakeroot feature (commonly referred as rootless mode) allows an unprivileged user to run a container as a “fake root” user by leveraging user namespace UID/GID mapping.
This feature requires a Linux kernel >= 3.8, but the recommended version is >= 3.18
A “fake root” user has almost the same administrative rights as root but only inside the container and the requested namespaces, which means that this user:
- can set different user/group ownership for files or directories he owns
- can change user/group identity with su/sudo commands
- has full privileges inside the requested namespaces (network, ipc, uts)
A “fake root” user can’t access or modify files and directories for which he doesn’t
have already access or rights on the host filesystem, so a “fake root” user won’t be able
to access root-only host files like
/etc/shadow or the host
Additionally, all files or directories created by the “fake root” user are owned by
root:root inside container but as
user:group outside of the container.
Let’s consider the following example, in this case “user” is authorized to use the fakeroot feature
and can use 65536 UIDs starting at 131072 (same thing for GIDs).
|UID inside container||UID outside container|
|0 (root)||1000 (user)|
|1 (daemon)||131072 (non-existent)|
|2 (bin)||131073 (non-existent)|
Which means if the “fake root” user creates a file under a
bin user in the container, this file will
be owned by
131073:131073 outside of container. The responsibility relies on the administrator
to ensure that there is no overlap with the current user’s UID/GID on the system.
Restrictions are also applied to networking, if
singularity is executed without the
the “fake root” user won’t be able to use
ping or bind a container service to a port below
--net the “fake root” user has full privileges in a dedicated container network. Inside
the container network he can bind on privileged ports below 1024, use ping, manage firewall rules,
listen to traffic, etc. Anything done in this dedicated network won’t affect the host network.
Of course an unprivileged user could not map host ports below than 1024 by using:
For unprivileged installation of Singularity or if
allow setuid = no is set in
users won’t be able to use a
Requirements / Configuration¶
Fakeroot depends on user mappings set in
/etc/subuid and group mappings in
/etc/subgid, so your username
needs to be listed in those files with a valid mapping (see the admin-guide for details), if you can’t edit
the files ask an administrator.
singularity config fakeroot command has been added to allow configuration
/etc/subgid mappings from the Singularity command line. You must be a root
user or run with
sudo to use
config fakeroot, as the mapping files are security sensitive. See the
admin-guide for more details.
If your user account is configured with valid
subgid mappings you work as a fake root user
inside a container by using the
--fakeroot option is available with the following singularity commands:
With fakeroot an unprivileged user can now build an image from a definition file with few restrictions. Some bootstrap
methods that require creation of block devices (like
/dev/null) may not always work correctly with “fake root”,
Singularity uses seccomp filters to give programs the illusion that block device creation succeeded. This appears to
yum bootstraps and may work with other bootstrap methods, although
debootstrap is known to not work.