User Namespaces & Fakeroot¶
User namespaces are an isolation feature that allow processes to run
with different user identifiers and/or privileges inside that
namespace than are permitted outside. A user may have a
1001 on a system outside of a user namespace, but run programs
with a different
uid with different privileges inside the
User namespaces are used with containers to make it possible to setup a container without privileged operations, and so that a normal user can act as root inside a container to perform administrative tasks, without being root on the host outside.
Singularity uses user namespaces in 3 situations:
setuidworkflow is disabled or Singularity was installed without root.
When a container is run with the
--fakerootis used to impersonate a root user when building or running a container.
User Namespace Requirements¶
To allow unprivileged creation of user namespaces a kernel >=3.8 is required, with >=3.18 being recommended due to security fixes for user namespaces (3.18 also adds OverlayFS support which is used by Singularity).
Additionally, some Linux distributions require that unprivileged user
namespace creation is enabled using a
sysctl or kernel command
line parameter. Please consult your distribution documentation or
vendor to confirm the steps necessary to ‘enable unprivileged user
sudo sh -c 'echo kernel.unprivileged_userns_clone=1 \ >/etc/sysctl.d/90-unprivileged_userns.conf' sudo sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d /etc/sysctl.d/90-unprivileged_userns.conf
From 7.4, kernel support is included but must be enabled with:
sudo sh -c 'echo user.max_user_namespaces=15000 \ >/etc/sysctl.d/90-max_net_namespaces.conf' sudo sysctl -p /etc/sysctl.d /etc/sysctl.d/90-max_net_namespaces.conf
As detailed in the non-setuid installation
section, Singularity can be compiled or configured with the
setuid = no option in
singularity.conf to not perform privileged
operations using the
When singularity does not use
setuid all container execution will
use a user namespace. In this mode of operation, some features are not
available, and there are impacts to the security/integrity guarantees
when running SIF container images:
All containers must be run from sandbox directories. SIF images are extracted to a sandbox directory on the fly, preventing verification at runtime, and potentially allowing external modification of the container at runtime.
Filesystem image, and SIF-embedded persistent overlays cannot be used.
Encrypted containers cannot be used. Singularity mounts encrypted containers directly through the kernel, so that encrypted content is not extracted to disk. This requires the setuid workflow.
Fakeroot functionality will rely on external setuid root
newgidmapbinaries which may be provided by the distribution.
--userns option to singularity run/exec/shell will start a
container using a user namespace, avoiding the setuid privileged
workflow for container setup even if Singularity was compiled and
configured to use setuid by default.
The same limitations apply as in an unprivileged installation.
Fakeroot (or commonly referred as rootless mode) allows an unprivileged user to run a container as a “fake root” user by leveraging user namespaces with user namespace UID/GID mapping.
User namespace UID/GID mapping allows a user to act as a different
UID/GID in the container than they are on the host. A user can access
a configured range of UIDs/GIDs in the container, which map back to
(generally) unprivileged user UIDs/GIDs on the host. This allows a
user to be
root (uid 0) in a container, install packages etc., but
have no privilege on the host.
In addition to user namespace support, Singularity must manipulate
subgid maps for the user namepsace it creates. By
default this happens transparently in the setuid workflow. With
unprivileged installations of Singularity or where
allow setuid =
no is set in
singularity.conf, Singularity attempts to use
external setuid binaries
newgidmap, so you
need to install those binaries on your system.
CentOS/RHEL 7 doesn’t provide a package for
newgidmap, so you will need to compile/install shadow-utils
Singularity expects to find these binaries in one of those standard
Fakeroot relies on
/etc/subgid files to find
configured mappings from real user and group IDs, to a range of
otherwise vacant IDs for each user on the host system that can be
remapped in the usernamespace. A user must have an entry in these
system configuration files to use the fakeroot feature. Singularity
provides a config fakeroot command to assist
in managing these files, but it is important to understand how they
foo an entry in
/etc/subuid might be:
foo is the username,
100000 is the start of the UID
range that can be used by
foo in a user namespace uid mapping, and
65536 number of UIDs available for mapping.
Some distributions add users to these files on installation, or when
adduser, etc. utilities are used to manage local
The glibc nss name service switch mechanism does not currently
subgid mappings with external
directory services such as LDAP. You must manage or provision
mapping files direct to systems where fakeroot will be used.
Singularity requires that a range of at least
65536 IDs is used
for each mapping. Larger ranges may be defined without error.
It is also important to ensure that the subuid and subgid ranges defined in these files don’t overlap with eachother, or any real UIDs and GIDs on the host system.
So if you want to add another user
/etc/subgid will look like:
Resulting in the following allocation:
Sub UID/GID range
100000 to 165535
165536 to 231071
Inside a user namespace / container,
bar can now act
as any UID/GID between 0 and 65536, but these UIDs are confined to the
foo UID 0 in the container will map to the host
1 to 65536 will map to
outside of the container etc. This impacts the ownership of files,
which will have different IDs inside and outside of the container.
If you are managing large numbers of fakeroot mappings you may wish
to specify users by UID rather than username in the
/etc/subgid files. The man page for
When large number of entries (10000-100000 or more) are defined in /etc/subuid, parsing performance penalty will become noticeable. In this case it is recommended to use UIDs instead of login names. Benchmarks have shown speed-ups up to 20x.
Based on the above range, here we can see what happens when the user
foo create files with
Create file with container UID
Created host file owned by UID
Outside of the fakeroot container the user may not be able to remove directories and files created with a subuid, as they do not match with the user’s UID on the host. The user can remove these files by using a container shell running with fakeroot.
With fakeroot, users can request a container network named
fakeroot, other networks are restricted and can only be used by
the real host root user. By default the
fakeroot network is
configured to use a network veth pair.
Do not change the
fakeroot network type in
considering the security implications.
Unprivileged installations of Singularity cannot use
network as it requires privilege during container creation to setup
Singularity 3.5 and above provides a
config fakeroot command that
can be used by a root user to administer local system
/etc/subgid files in a simple manner. This allows users to be
granted the ability to use Singularity’s fakeroot functionality
without editing the files manually. The
config fakeroot command
will automatically ensure that generated subuid/subgid ranges are an
approriate size, and do not overlap.
config fakeroot must be run as the
root user, or via
singularity config fakeroot as the
/etc/subgid files form part of the system configuration, and are
security sensitive. You may
subuid/subgid mappings. You can also
If you deploy Singularity to a cluster you will need to make
arrangements to synchronize
mapping files to all nodes.
At this time, the glibc name service switch functionality does not support subuid or subgid mappings, so they cannot be definied in a central directory such as LDAP.
Adding a fakeroot mapping¶
-a/--add <user> option to
config fakeroot to create new
mapping entries so that
<user> can use the fakeroot feature of Singularity:
$ sudo singularity config fakeroot --add dave # Show generated `/etc/subuid` $ cat /etc/subuid 1000:4294836224:65536 # Show generated `/etc/subgid` $ cat /etc/subgid 1000:4294836224:65536
The first subuid range will be set to the top of the 32-bit UID space. Subsequent subuid ranges for additional users will be created working down from this value. This minimizes the change of overlap with real UIDs on most systems.
config fakeroot command generates mappings specified using
the user’s uid, rather than their username. This is the preferred
format for faster lookups when configuring a large number of
mappings, and the command can be used to manipulate these by
Deleting, disabling, enabling mappings¶
-r/--remove <user> option to
config fakeroot to
completely remove mapping entries. The
<user> will no longer be
able to use the fakeroot feature of Singularity:
$ sudo singularity config fakeroot --remove dave
If a fakeroot mapping is removed, the subuid/subgid range may be
assigned to another user via
--add. Any remaining files from
the prior user that were created with this mapping will be
accessible to the new user via fakeroot.
-e/--enable options will comment and
uncomment entries in the mapping files, to temporarily disable and
subsequently re-enable fakeroot functionality for a user. This can be
useful to disable fakeroot for a user, but ensure the subuid/subgid
range assigned to them is reserved, and not re-assigned to a different
# Disable dave $ sudo singularity config fakeroot --disable dave # Entry is commented $ cat /etc/subuid !1000:4294836224:65536 # Enable dave $ sudo singularity config fakeroot --enable dave # Entry is active $ cat /etc/subuid 1000:4294836224:65536